At the time the Central Coast Sanctuaries were designated, oil development and ocean dumping were considered the most significant threats to the marine environment. Over time, less obvious threats to Sanctuary resources, such as overfishing and non-point source pollution, have become evident. Every year, new activities emerge that must be evaluated to see if they have the potential to damage Sanctuary resources. There are clear benefits to identifying emerging threats in order to address them early in their evolution. Regulation becomes more difficult as more and more investments are made in new technologies and activities with the potential to harm marine ecosystems. This chapter addresses some of the new or expanding activities that are likely to threaten Sanctuary resources in coming years.